Athena Owl Inhaltsverzeichnis
Die Eule der Minerva oder auch Eule der Athene ist ein Symbol von Klugheit und Weisheit. Die Eule der Minerva oder auch Eule der Athene ist ein Symbol von Klugheit und Weisheit. Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1 Herkunft; 2 Verwendung in der Neuzeit. Schau dir unsere Auswahl an athena owl an, um die tollsten einzigartigen oder spezialgefertigten handgemachten Stücke aus unseren Shops für anhänger zu. Schau dir unsere Auswahl an athena owl ring an, um die tollsten einzigartigen oder spezialgefertigten handgemachten Stücke aus unseren Shops für ringe zu. Athena & Owl Anhänger und Kette, griechische Götter & göttines Collection (# 12PENCHAIN-s): ihappynewyear2019.co: Spielzeug.
Finden Sie Top-Angebote für Griechische EULE DER ATHENE Schlüsselanhänger bei eBay. Kostenlose Lieferung für viele Artikel! Schau dir unsere Auswahl an athena owl an, um die tollsten einzigartigen oder spezialgefertigten handgemachten Stücke aus unseren Shops für anhänger zu. ihappynewyear2019.co: Kostenlose Lieferung und Rückgabe. Owl of Athena Greek Mythology Athena Goddess philosophy gift T-Shirt. Jetzt bestellen! Auf die Beobachtungsliste Beobachten beenden Ihre Beobachtungsliste ist voll. The superb detailing and hand painted accents really bring this statue to life. Hauptinhalt anzeigen. Cold cast pewter is a when real powdered metal Athena Owl mixed in Beste in Rosenleiten finden resin. Es sind 1 Artikel verfügbar. Wie Eulen, die erst in der Abenddämmerung umherzufliegen beginnen, sei die Philosophie, die erst Erklärungen liefern https://ihappynewyear2019.co/james-bond-casino-royale-full-movie-online/beste-spielothek-in-beuditz-finden.php, wenn die zu erklärenden Phänomene bereits Geschichte seien. Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Artikel in Sonderaktionen. Informationen zum Artikel Artikelzustand:. Dimensions: Height: 13" to top of plume Man nimmt überwiegend an, dass die Göttin Menrva etruskischen Ursprungs ist und später als Minerva von den Römern und anderen italischen Kulturen übernommen wurde. Die Versandkosten können nicht berechnet werden. ihappynewyear2019.co: Kostenlose Lieferung und Rückgabe. Owl of Athena Greek Mythology Athena Goddess philosophy gift T-Shirt. Jetzt bestellen! This listing is for a brand new COLD CAST PEWTER RESIN* statue of Athena with spear & owl in a rich antique finish (see brief history about Athena below). Finden Sie Top-Angebote für Griechische EULE DER ATHENE Schlüsselanhänger bei eBay. Kostenlose Lieferung für viele Artikel! Kaufe "Athena's Owl" von Scott Partridge auf folgenden Produkten: T-Shirt, Classic T-Shirt, Vintage T-Shirt, Leichter Hoodie, Tailliertes Rundhals-Shirt, Tailliertes. In her role as a protector of the city polismany people throughout the Greek world worshiped Athena as Athena Polias "Athena of the city". Neu: Neuer, unbenutzter und unbeschädigter Artikel in der Beste Spielothek in JСЊgesheim finden Verpackung soweit eine Verpackung vorhanden ist. Auf Pinterest teilen wird in neuem Fenster oder Tab geöffnet. Die Philosophie setze mithin Wirklichkeitserfahrung voraus und könne nicht aus sich selbst heraus utopische Phantasien Athena Owl es gehe ihr immer um die Erkenntnis dessen, was ist. Der Verkäufer ist für dieses Angebot verantwortlich. Cold cast pewter is a when real powdered metal is mixed in with resin. International Buyers Please Note : Import duties, taxes and charges are not included in the item Lotto Quoten HeГџen or shipping charges. Kitts und Nevis, St.
Athena Owl ProduktbeschreibungAuf die Beobachtungsliste. Weitere Informationen finden Sie in den Nutzungsbedingungen für das Programm zum weltweiten Versand - wird in neuem Fenster oder Click to see more geöffnet Dieser Betrag enthält die anfallenden Zollgebühren, Steuern, Provisionen und sonstigen Gebühren. Kontaktieren Sie den Verkäufer - wird in neuem Fenster oder Tag geöffnet und fragen Sie, mit welcher Versandmethode an Ihren Standort verschickt werden kann. In der römischen Mythologie wurde Minerva mit Athene gleichgesetzt und mit der Eule what Spielsucht Test sorry. Keine zusätzlichen Gebühren bei Lieferung! Zurück zur Startseite. Bitte geben Sie eine Stückzahl von mindestens 1 ein.
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The three Greek letters are alpha, theta, and epsilon, with the theta appearing as an O with a dot in the middle and having a TH sound.
In modern Greek theta is represented as an O with a line in the middle, while earlier in Greece it was represented as an O with either a cross or X in the middle.
As with most ancient Greek coins, the genitive possessive case was used for the legend, so instead of "Athens" it means "Of the Athenians.
The above specimen is among those that are better styled, with Athena having a relatively small head, long neck, and fine overall features, though her nose merges unnaturally with her forehead.
The numismatist Paul Szego described the styling of this variety as "primitive" but "permeated with the sweet freshness of archaic charm.
The above coin was likely minted after the discovery of new silver deposits at Laurion near Athens c. The new Laurion silver was used to significantly increase the production of Owls for building up the Athenian navy in preparation of the anticipated Persian invasion of Greece.
Laurion silver would later be central to Athens' military, political, economic, and cultural success. The Greek victory over the Persian fleet at the Battle of Salamis c.
This was an epochal moment, which the historian Victor Davis Hanson called the supreme confrontation between East and West, between despotism and individual freedoms.
About Salamis, wrote the 19th century philosopher Georg Hegel, "The interests of the world's history hung trembling in the balance. For the next three and a half centuries, Greek ideals about constitutional government, private property, free scientific enquiry, rationalism, and separation between political and religious authority would permeate lands from Italy to India, and via the Roman Empire, would spread through Europe and on to us, though not without interruption and regression.
The Battle of Marathon of BC and the Battle of Thermopylae, which took place slightly earlier in BC, are better known to us today, the former because of the heroics of a lone long-distance runner, the latter because of a Hollywood movie.
But the Battle of Salamis was far more momentous. Classical Owl Type A full-crest tetradrachm The above follows from the logic that earlier Mass Classical Owls, perhaps issued between c.
With the huge numbers of Mass Owls minted, with the many different dies used, and with the many different die engravers likely used, there are no doubt plenty of exceptions to the above generalities, and there's nothing that appears remotely conclusive to date Mass Owls to specific decades.
Perhaps the most interesting difference between the earlier and later Mass Owls is that with the later issues Athena has lost her confident smile.
These later Owls were likely minted during the Peloponnesian War, which Athens lost. On subsequent Intermediate and New Styles Owls, Athena would never regain that confident smile, just as Athens never regained her preeminent position in the Greek world, at least militarily.
The subtly smiling mouth, close to symmetrical eye, and longer face of the above specimen suggests it's an earlier Mass Classical Owl, minted during the height of Athenian power to finance the building of the Parthenon and other projects.
Based upon the smile, I'm calling varieties such as the above specimen Type A. Mass Owls have the distinction of being used to help build Athens into a great city through the financing of the Parthenon and other building projects and later to help destroy its supremacy through the financing of the disastrous Peloponnesian War.
Owls for the most part weren't used for everyday commerce because their buying power was far too high. Compared with smaller fractions, they show up infrequently in archeological excavations in the Athenian agora, or marketplace.
They were used in Athens instead for large transactions such as building projects, payment for war supplies and personnel, and international trade.
As international trade coins, they were also used by other cities for the collection of tribute and taxes and by traders and merchants for large commercial transactions.
Owls were employed heavily in international trade, but they weren't the first coins accepted across international borders. That coin would have been the Aegina Turtle.
Athenian Owls, however, were minted in far greater numbers, traveled much further, and were imitated all over the known world at the time.
The coins that replaced the Owl as the most commonly used international currency were Alexander the Great's silver tetradrachms and gold staters, which in turn were replaced by the Roman denarius.
Mass Classical Owls differ stylistically in other ways besides the differences spelled out above. Some specimens have a lock of hair in front of Athena's forehead, a pronounced dot on the owl's forehead, a theta without a central dot, or an A with a tilted rather than straight crossbar.
Classical Owl Type A test-cut, countermarked, and corroded tetradrachm As with the previous two pieces, this is also a full-crest Owl.
But it may be the ugliest Owl I've ever seen. Its surfaces exhibit significant wear, from use in ancient times, and severe corrosion, from how the coin has reacted to its environment in being buried for 25 centuries, which combined nearly obliterate the coin's detail.
The coin apparently was found with the silver toned completely black and was partially cleaned, with the original silver sulfide toning visible as ugly black splotches in the recesses and corrosion pits.
Two test cuts, on obverse and reverse, plus a reverse countermark further mar the surfaces. Yet there's interest in the ugliness, with this coin exemplifying well what time can do.
And there's other interest as well. With this full-crest Owl, having an obverse type struck on a flan that's wide enough to include the complete crest of Athena's helmet, Athena's head is still well centered, with all of her facial features still on the flan.
As with the previous two Owls on this page, Athena's has a wide, smiling mouth, indicating this is likely an early, less common Mass Classical Owl.
The countermark has a "skew" pattern, with two long lines and third short line dividing the space into five compartments, identical to the design inside the incuse square of late archaic and classical Turtles of Aegina of roughly the same period, and it may indicate that this coin was countermarked there.
Thanks to fellow collector John Tatman for pointing this out. Classical Owl Type A test-cut tetradrachm Classical Owl Type B test-cut tetradrachm Athena's frowning lips represent the second of three major varieties of Mass Athenian Owls, according to my observations, and I'm calling it Type B.
I'm dating these, as well as my Type C Owls, c. This Owl depicts another potential result of test cutting.
Along with cracking or breaking a coin, a test cut can flatten it on the opposite side. On this coin, Athena's eye and cheek have been flattened.
To prevent this from happening, what likely happened with the majority of test-cut coins is that they were first placed on a shock-absorbing surface such as an animal skin.
The test cutting of ancient coins doesn't lead to the loss of any appreciable metal, just its displacement.
This specimen, for instance, is full weight, more than What happens during a test cut is technically called "plastic deformation.
The majority of Mass Classical Owls weigh from Of the nonplated Mass Classical Owls with more than a fair chance of having been minted in Athens rather than being of Eastern origin that are documented in Svoronos along with their weights, Svoronos lists more specimens as being of Athenian origin, but some are in all probabilility of Egyptian or other Eastern origin.
On the other hand, The mean weight is Laurion silver in ancient times had a reputation for its high quality. According to modern metallurgical testing, Owls in general have a very high silver content, lower in copper as well as gold compared with other ancient silver coins, which typically have higher levels of such impurities as a result of lower levels of silver in the ore used as well as coarse ancient smelting.
According to Colin M. John H. The nine Owls analyzed had a copper content of 0. The planchets of Classical Owls appear to have been produced by pouring molten silver into open molds designed to hold the correct amount of metal, which resulted in thick flans of irregular shape.
The dies, likely made of bronze, were hand engraved using such tools as a burin, chisel, punch, and drill.
As with most ancient coins, the obverse die was placed in an anvil under the planchet, and the reverse die was held above the planchet and struck by hand with a heavy hammer, which caused reverse dies to wear out sooner than obverse dies.
Classical Owl Type B test-cut and countermarked tetradrachm Like the previous four Owls on this page, this coin was test cut in ancient times and reveals no interior bronze.
Like the Owl three pieces up, this specimen has a countermark, also called a banker's mark, on the reverse to the right of the owl, which is a mark typically used to certify that the coin is legal tender beyond its place of origin or has been retariffed at a different value.
The upper mark appears to be a Semitic aleph A , which would suggest that the countermark is of Middle Eastern origin. Owls are known to have been countermarked in ancient times as far away as India.
The terms "countermark" and "banker's mark" are often used interchangeably for symbols, letters, or numbers that are stamped into the coin's surface after it has been minted for an official purpose.
Countermarks are distinguished from graffiti, which are engraved or scratched markings created unofficially. The term "punchmark" is sometimes used for a smaller official mark, as distinguished from a larger "countermark.
Sometimes these differences blur, when punchmarks appear to have been used also to reveal the metal in the coin's core.
The term "countermark" or "counterstamp" is also used for the "COPY" or similar indication on modern replicas. Most test-cut Owls were test cut on the reverse, with most of these in turn being cut through the owl's head.
Interestingly, the test cut on this specimen follows the contours of the owl's body. It's likely that the owl's head was cut in half so often for one of two reasons.
Perhaps coin testers in lands outside the Greek world were sending a message to Athens, a passive-aggressive protest against Athens' hegemony.
Athens was one of the imperial powers of the day, controlling or exerting influence upon territories beyond its own and generating resentment in the process.
The Egyptians and Judeans and Phoenicians and Syrians and Anatolians and Babylonians may have simply not liked the snooty Athenians, their pretty bullion, their god, and their god's little owl.
Or perhaps, less interestingly, most test-cut Owls were cut at the owl's head because it was the high point of the reverse and cutting here thus caused fewer coins to be broken.
Similarly, the reverse rather than the obverse was typically test cut because it was concave, which also led to fewer coins being cracked during the procedure.
If you test cut the convex obverse, there's a cavity under the reverse as the coin sits on its rim. In his book Archaic and Classical Greek Coins , Kraay described test cuts as "savage incisions inflicted with a chisel with no regard for type or legend.
And he wrote that some coins were test cut more than once by successive owners because old cuts when dirty or tarnished wouldn't reveal the color of the interior metal and because some forgers created pre-test cut plated fakes.
In their book Coinage of the Greek World , Ian Carradice and Martin Price wrote that test cutting of ancient coins in antiquity was a frequent occurrence both inside the Greek world in Athens, for instance and outside.
They pointed to a papyrus reference indicating that in Egypt officials were employed to both collect debt and test cut coins.
They also wrote that with some hoards of Greek coins unearthed in the Near East, particularly those from the archaic period, every single one had been test cut.
This and other hoard evidence provides support for the view that test cutting was more common outside the Greek world, as Kraay wrote.
Finally, Carradice and Price indicated that up to the fourth century BC, simple slashing was the most common method used to authenticate coins.
More intricate countermarks have been used on some coins since the beginning of coinage. On Lydian Lions , which are the first or among the first of all coins, they appear to have been used as marks of ownership rather than marks of authenticity or legal tender.
Pantikapaion heavily countermarked its bronze coinage during the third century BC to retariff it and earn profits in the process.
In modern times banker's marks were used most notably in China from about to with large silver coins such as U.
China didn't use silver for native coins, and the banker's marks, called "chop marks," indicated the coin was tested and determined to be of good silver.
This specimen has been test cut an astonishing six times, the most test cuts I've ever seen on an Owl, once on the edge visible on both obverse and reverse and five times on the reverse.
This many tests of authenticity on one coin speaks volumes about the high frequency of plated counterfeits that must have existed and about the paranoia that this likely engendered.
The random pattern of test cuts visible on the reverse of the above piece imparts a jarring modernistic aesthetic that's also quite interesting.
The protuberance near the base of Athena's skull looks like a casting sprue but is actually a flattening of the flan caused by one of the reverse test cuts.
Not all numismatists agree that test cutting was done to authenticate. Ute Wartenberg and Jonathan H. The logic of such severe gashes into the interior of the metal being used for this purpose, however, is strained.
Deep test cuts had the potential of leading, and sometimes did lead, to a coin cracking into pieces, with the more cuts, the more the integrity of the coin's structure would have been compromised and the greater the chance of the coin breaking.
What's more, the technology existed for imparting more information through the use of designed countermarks that were smaller, shallower, and safer.
It's more likely that the multiple test cuts were just testimony to the abundance of silver-plated copper Owls that were circulating, both unofficial counterfeits and official emergency pieces.
Some of the unofficial counterfeit Owls were even struck with test cuts that had been to engraved into the die, as a further deception, trying to fool people that they had already been authenticated.
It's likely that some percentage of traders and merchants would not have been satisfied with one cut. Each person test cutting any given piece would have wanted to verify for himself that the interior was good silver.
Not much contemporary documentary evidence exists about ancient coin authentication. The law required both official Athenian Owls and imitative Owls originating elsewhere to be tested by Dokimastes testers.
Any Owl found to be good had to be accepted in commerce. Counterfeit pieces, on the other hand, were to be withdrawn from circulation.
The law, however, didn't indicate how the coins were to be tested or whether only the purity of the silver or both the purity and weight should be tested.
In his book The Power of Money: Coinage and Politics in the Athenian Empire , Thomas stated his belief: "The purview of the Dokimastes does not seem to have extended to an examination of coins for their weight.
Such calculations may have been left to negotiations between buyers and sellers. He suggested that the ancient testers could have used scales as well as looking, touching, and listening to the sound the coin made when dropped on a tabletop, a practice still employed by money testers today.
Another piece of evidence, this one contemporary, is the c. But official testers of foreign coins as well as traders and merchants unofficially testing any coin wouldn't be concerned with defacing the coin's surface and would take a hammer and chisel to suspected currency to examine the inside.
Along with Classical and Intermediate Style Athenian Owls, other coins used heavily for intercity trade were also test cut frequently, including but not limited to Aegina Turtles, Philip II tetradrachms, Alexander the Great tetradrachms and drachms, Thasos tetradrachms, Sinope drachms, Cherronesos hemidrachms, and Mesembria diobols.
The above specimen was part of a hoard found in or and variously reported to consist of from 1, to 6, Owls, most of which were test cut in ancient times.
The hoard was variously reported to have been found in Syria, Turkey, or Albania. Irrational laws in most source countries claim all things ancient found in their soil as part of their cultural heritage, which leads to secrecy and misinformation.
Those closest to this hoard, as with many other ancient coin hoards, no doubt put out false information about where it originated to avoid tipping off authorities in the country.
If these authorities had become aware of this hoard, they no doubt would have seized it. The vast majority of new ancient coin finds go unreported, and untold knowledge of ancient coins in particular and ancient history in general has thus been lost, a situation that has existed for many decades.
Laws in most countries in the Mediterranean, Balkans, and Middle East regions are overreactions to practices during past centuries when colonial powers moved significant quantities of artifacts from these countries into museums and private collections to the north.
Such objects, however, are the heritage of everyone who shares a connection to ancient Greece or Rome or the regions they controlled.
Further, many of the objects found in any given country were made and used by peoples totally different from those currently living in these countries.
Finally, there's not enough museum display space for even a small fraction of the coins and artifacts found in any given year.
As typically happens with irrational laws, they're routinely broken. But because laws must be broken for ancient coins to reach the market, a black market exists.
According to credible reports by those close to the situation, the operation of the ancient coin supply chain at the source in most source countries is controlled by mafia types who bribe government officials in order to smuggle coins out of the particular country.
The coins are dispersed to coin wholesalers or coin dealers, typically in Germany or elsewhere in northern Europe, and they eventually make their way into collections.
Some archeologists are clamoring for the banning of private collecting as the solution to this smuggling problem as well as the problem of the looting of archeological sites.
But archeologists haven't shown themselves to be any better stewards of the past than source country governments or collectors.
Many museum workers will tell you of the huge number of ancient artifacts stored in museum basements, not studied or displayed, and with many the information about their findspots and the context in which they were found has long been lost.
The solution as I see it is sharing. There's plenty of material for everyone. A rational, regulated, free market for newly unearthed antiquities and coins should be created.
Rather than clamping down on collecting, we should encourage governments to free up the market, using the successful British model.
With every newly uncovered hoard or find, museums in source countries and their governmental sponsors would choose what they wanted for their collections and to help preserve their cultural heritage, paying wholesale fair market prices for it.
Governments would confiscate material shown to have been uncovered illegally at off-limits, bona fide archeological sites. The remainder of the material would enter the collector chain of supply, not through the black market as happens today with the majority of new finds, but openly so the material could be fully studied, so we could learn more about where we came from.
To raise money, source country governments could tax openly exported items. Classical Owl Type C repaired tetradrachm The most distinguishing aspect of the above specimen, however, is its having been repaired, with unmistakable evidence of an ancient test cut being filled in at some point fairly recently.
In some fields such as painting, such repair or restoration work is considered acceptable and even beneficial. With coinage, however, it's considered trickery, turning a coin into something it's not and trying to hide its history, which is considered part of the coin.
The evidence of repair work, sometimes called tooling or doctoring, is the disturbance in the surface of the coin at Athena's cheek, where the test cut had been, and the coin being overweight.
The surface here is smoother than the surrounding area, and there are clear and fairly straight borders separating the new surface from the original surrounding surface.
The work appears to have been done by adding molten silver to the test cut and flattening it out to blend it as much as possible with the surrounding surface.
Because test cutting displaces metal rather than removing it, the added metal caused the coin to be heavier than the Classical Owl standard of The chance of this happening in ancient times is virtually nonexistent, since test-cut Owls were valued the same as those not authenticated in this way and adding silver to the coin would have been counterproductive.
In comparison with other types of coin doctoring, filling in a test cut is far from the most egregious. The most deceptive doctoring, often considered a type of counterfeiting, is converting a coin from a common variety or type to a rare one by altering the legend or adding a mint mark.
Also more deceptive, though less so, is reengraving the detail in the coin's devices and legends to make the coin appear to have experienced less wear than it did.
Filling in an ancient hole is similar in its degree of deception to filling in an ancient test cut, though in this case the weight wouldn't give it away since piercing a coin, unlike test cutting, removes metal.
It only follows that in some cases, when heavy toning or patination is applied, coins that have had their holes or test cuts filled have gone undetected.
Also considered to be coin doctoring, though the least deceptive, is smoothing out corrosion, the corrosion typically having occurred during the many centuries that the coin was buried underground.
Though some collectors find it objectionable, manipulating an ancient coin's surface by adding artificial toning or patina is a routine part of the process of cleaning ancient coins and isn't considered deceptive by most.
Even though filling in a test cut isn't the height of numismatic iniquity, it's wrong headed, and it lowers a coin's market value.
Interestingly, the seller of the above coin didn't have it labeled as repaired, but he did point this out after I had stared at Athena's cheek for some time.
The coin is otherwise attractive, and all told it's a good example of the bad things that are sometimes done to coins. Classical Owl Type C tetradrachm with crystallization defect The most distinguishing characteristic of this coin is the large cavity in Athena's cheek.
Upon closer inspection hatch patterns are also visible on the coin's surfaces, most prominently on the reverse.
This indicates that the metal of the coin has become crystallized, or embrittled, which caused a piece of it to break off at some point fairly recently.
Also called intergranular corrosion, reticulate corrosion, or embrittlement, crystallization happens under certain conditions with silver coins that are naturally alloyed with small amounts of copper or lead, as were most ancient Greek-era silver coins.
Most Owls, however, very pure silver compared with other ancient coins, so relatively few Owls are seen crystallized.
Crystallization occurs because of the inherent instability of silver alloys at room temperature. The copper and lead separate from the silver over time, leaching out, causing voids between the silver grains, and lowering the coin's weight.
This leaves the metal spongy and brittle while causing crisscrossing hatch marks and swirling, perpendicular grooves to form on the surfaces.
Under magnification feather-like crystals can sometimes also be seen on the surfaces. Other times the crystallization is visually undetectable.
Though the term "crystallization" is commonly used in numismatics, "intergranular corrosion" is a somewhat better term because the metal isn't actually becoming crystallized.
Instead, the crystalline structure of it is becoming more visible as a result of the internal corrosion. I didn't buy the coin as an attractive example of ancient numismatic art but as a problem coin illustrating an interesting effect.
On the other hand, the coin was sold by a large international auction house using a photograph that depicted the coin with what appeared to be attractive golden-brown toning, looking as if it had been sitting in a collection for many years.
In hand, however, the coin is blast white, with absolutely no coloration, no doubt from very recently having been cleaned. As with other fields, sometimes digital photography is used deceptively, in this case to make a coin appear more attractive than it is.
Classical Owl Type C tetradrachm This is another of my Type C Mass Classical Owls, and unlike many of the above coins, it's undamaged and absolutely beautiful.
It appears to be a very late Mass Classical Owl, with Athena's asymmetrical eye beginning to open up at the inner corner and no parts of the incuse square visible on the reverse.
The noted numismatist T. Buttrey has disputed the Athenian origin of this and similarly styled Owls, giving them instead to Egypt.
See Sear Greek for another similarly styled specimen. But thus far the evidence still argues in favor of Athens.
There's no economic reason for Egypt to have minted Owls in great quantity. This and similar coins are of fine style, without any barbarized features, and the reverse inscription, AQE, remains the same as on official Athenian Owls, translating into "Of the Athenians.
Egyptian Owls. The above specimen is beautifully centered and preserved, with attractive frosty surfaces. Here's what it looked like before it was cleaned.
Some numismatists and collectors denigrate the aesthetics and commonness of Mass Classical Owls. But these coins have their considerable charm and appeal.
The archaic style, marked by still formality and lack of perspective, reinforces the notion that these coins are products of antiquity.
And these coins were monumentally influential. Intermediate Style Owl tetradrachm The design is both more refined and coarse. In contrast to the almond-shaped frontal eye of Classical and Archaic Owls, the eye on Athena finally appears realistically in profile, triangular in shape, catching up aesthetically with other classical Greek coinage.
But Athena's hair and, except with some of the earliest of these, the owl's feathers are rendered with less detail. Many sources indicate that Intermediate Style Owls were minted from c.
The date corresponds to time when the Athenian general Konon returned to Athens with Persian money to rebuild, which reestablished Athens as a major power if no longer an empire.
The Persian money became available after Sparta, previously a Persian ally against Athens, had a falling out with the mighty Persian Empire and began raiding Persian satrapies in Asia Minor.
The minting of Owls during this period was interrupted by the rise of Macedon, but there's no agreement for how long. Some sources indicate it was from c.
Alexander permitted the minting of local coins throughout his empire, though no doubt the numbers of Owls minted dropped significantly, with Owls being replaced by Alexander's tetradrachms and staters as international trade coinage.
Athens with the support of Egypt revolted against Macedonian rule and regained more of its independence c.
When Demetrios, the Macedonian governor of Athens, died c. Earlier fourth century BC Intermediate Style Owls such as the specimen illustrated above were issued during the century of Aristotle when Athens continued to flourish intellectually even though its military heyday was over.
Athenian philosophy reached its zenith during the latter fourth century BC with the founding of schools by Diogenes Cynics , Epicurus Epicureans , and Zeno Stoics.
The above thick-flanned coin is likely an earlier variety, though lacking the remnants of an incuse square or more refined owl, it's likely not among the earliest.
Later varieties depicted an owl with even coarser, more pronounced head and body feathers. This is a beautiful specimen, beautifully preserved and toned.
The only real flaw is a reverse die break, sometimes called a die cud, around the owl's beak, causing metal to flood this spot when the coin was struck and detail to be lost.
Intermediate Style Owl off-center tetradrachm This Intermediate Style Owl is distinguished by its having nearly the full crest of Athena's helmet on the flan.
This is made possible, however, by the obverse being extremely off center, with most of Athena's face off the flan.
The lack of coordination between die size and flan size remained a problem and actually became even more severe with Intermediate Style Owls.
As a whole they were minted on even tighter, thicker flans, with even fewer exhibiting all of the coin's design.
Of the Intermediate Style Owls with a fair chance of having been minted in Athens that are illustrated in Svoronos, on only one does Athena's helmet have a full crest and on only four does the helmet have fairly substantial partial crest.
These thick coins aren't without their appeal. As with the previous archaically styled Classical Owls, they flaunt an ancient charm, though this charm isn't in great evidence in the above piece.
Along with being off center, this coin is also well worn. It was graded by the seller, a large international auction firm specializing in ancient coins, as Very Fine, but much of the detail of the coin's surfaces has worn off.
Despite the inherent subjectivity of grading, VF is clearly is a full grade overgraded, perhaps more if you grade the obverse Very Good and reverse Fine separately.
The coin was also photographed somewhat deceptively, appearing to be toned and with relatively smooth surfaces, but in hand it's untoned and porous, having been harshly cleaned.
Fortunately, it wasn't expensive. One reality of coin collecting as a hobby is that when not buying in person, sometimes you're pleasantly surprised -- usually, in my experience -- but sometimes not.
Intermediate Style Owl test-cut tetradrachm This official Athenian coin was test cut twice in ancient times to authenticate it, once through the owl's head, once through Athena's head.
It's the correct weight with no interior bronze exposed. This is another ugly coin, with Athena's nose, half of the owl's head, and half of the olive sprig off the flan.
What's more, the force of the reverse test cut flattened the high points of the obverse -- the hair at Athena's temple and her cheek directly underneath.
With this coin as well, there's also interest in the ugliness.Wikimedia Commons has media related to Athena. Argo Phaeacian ships. Relief of Athena and Nike slaying the Gigante Alkyoneus? Those closest to this hoard, as with many other ancient coin hoards, no doubt put out false information about where source originated to avoid tipping off authorities in the country. A myth told by the Athena Owl third-century BC Hellenistic poet Callimachus in his Hymn 5 begins with Athena bathing in a spring on Mount Helicon at midday with https://ihappynewyear2019.co/free-online-casino-slot/wir-finden-uns-erfahrungen.php of her favorite companions, the here Chariclo. The goddesses chose to place the matter before Zeus, who, not wanting to favor one of the goddesses, put the choice into the hands of Paris, a Trojan prince. Ancient Greece Tiger Belgian Myths portal Philosophy portal. It can be enjoyable to follow Western civilization today back through key contributions by various peoples, allowing for numerous other influences along the https://ihappynewyear2019.co/free-online-casino-slot/20-von-20eur.php. The reasons for the association of Athena and the owl are uncertain. The use of AI has permeated almost…. Owls were commonly reproduced by Athenians in vases, weights Athena Owl prize amphoras for the Panathenaic Games. The curse also entailed Blodeuwedd being transformed into an owl. Featured Posts. Thanks to fellow collector John Tatman for pointing this. Herse, Aglaulus, and Pandrosus go to the temple to offer sacrifices to Athena. Irrational laws in most source countries claim all things ancient found in their soil as part of their cultural heritage, article source leads to secrecy and misinformation. Weitere Einzelheiten im Angebot des Verkäufers. Auf die Beobachtungsliste Beobachten beenden Ihre Beobachtungsliste ist voll. Verkäufer kontaktieren. Verpackung und Versand. Dimensions: Height: 13" to top of plume